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APS TechNotes See all articles

Pros and Cons of Water Treatment Technologies

Macro carb


Low Ashe (potash) (Eucalyptus would)

  • Only carbon that removes Tannins
  • Better with heavy organics then coconut shell.
  • 5 g.p.m . / ft3
  • Cost compared to tannin resins
  • 8-30 mesh


  • Must not have cl2 to remove tannins.



  • Removes Manganese iron and h2s04


  • 10 iron, 2 mg and 5 h2s04
  • No chemical regen - only back wash


  • Low flow per ft3

  • 25 g.p.m. / sq ft backwash

  • (5 gpm system requires 25 g.p.m. backwash.
    Fouls with low back wash rates.

  • (Not generally recomended)

    Manganese greensand +
    Regular manganese no longer available

  • Regens with cl2 constand feed or potasium permaganate
  • Removes Iron, H2so4, Manganese,


  • Best oxidizer

  • Iron up to 15 p.p.m.
  • h2so4 up to 5 p.p.m.
  • Manganese up to 5 p.p.m.


  • Iron Bacteria fouls it.
  • Requires chemical regen (Constant cl2 or batch potperm)

    Terminator Systems

    Pros -
  • No chem regen
  • Inexpensive.
  • Low Maintenance


  • Higher Pressure drop


  • Iron 10 p.p..m.
  • h2s04 5 p.p.m.
  • Manganese 3 p.p.m.

    Catalytic carbon - Centur Carbon

  • Good for people who only need to remove h2so4 to 5 p.p.m.
  • Needs backwash only
  • Also removes chlorine and chloramine.
  • Best choice for chloramine removal
  • Good on organics


  • Bacteria growth in the Bed

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